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  1. #16
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    Egyptian image of Amun


    Solid god statue of Amun

    amun gold.jpg

    A reconstruction of the Temple of Amun at Jebel Barkal in Nubia

    reconstruction of the temple of amun.jpg

    Amun depicted with the head of a ram

    god amun.jpg

    Greek image of Amun as Amun Zeus. Notice the ram horns of Amun on the head of Zeus.

    amun zeus.jpg

    Ancient Nubian Religion: The Worship of Amun

    It was during the conquest of Nubia by Egyptian Pharaoh Ahmose I (1549 – 1529 BCE) that Nubian began to adopt many of the Egyptian deities and religious practices. But it would be his grandson Thumose I (1506 -1493 BCE) who would expand the Egyptian Empire well into Upper Nubia south to Jebal Barkal, the Holy Mountain of the Egyptian god Amun. It is this mountain Jebal Barkal that an outline of an image of Amun was seen by Thumose I and told to the people of Nubia, who also agreed with him that it was the image of Amun. Thus began the fervent worship of Amun at Jebal Barkal who also was stated to reside inside of the mountain along with his wife Mut. Later, Pharaoh Thumose III (1479 – 1425 BCE) would build the Temple of Amun and the Temple of Mut at the base of Jebal Barkal honoring the Egyptian deities. This would become the second holiest site of worship in the Egyptian Empire, next to Thebes.

    Amun also Amon, Ammon (Greek), and Amen was a major ancient Egyptian god and part of the eight major deities called Ogdoad (gods during the creation according to Egyptian mythology). Over time he would ascend to the point of being monotheistic such as omnipotent, omnipresent, and omniscient. He would become King of all gods in which all the other deities were manifestations of him. Amun would be combined with Ra (sun god) and would become creator of all things.

    Amun means “hidden one” or “invisible.” Amun nature and power was independent and transcended that of the material universe and was also beyond all understanding of known physical laws. He was not limited to any physical existence and was independent of it. Amun transcended both the universe and knowledge and thus, was beyond grasp of the human mind. He was only reachable through prayer. However, most scholars state that gods are usually both within the universe (immanentism) and beyond the universe as well, rather “in it but not of it” (John 17: 14). Many of his attributes are comparable and similar to Biblical God of the Old and New Testament (Jesus or Yeshua), as well as the Torah, Quran, and other religions of today.

    He would rise in influence and worship to become the patron deity of Thebes. Later, after the Egyptians forced the Hyksos (Canaanites or Levantines) (1) occupiers out of Egypt, Amun began to gain in national prominence. Because of the Pharaoh’s victories over foreign rulers, Amun was also seen as representing Maat (female Egyptian goddess), the Egyptian concepts of truth, justice, wisdom, law, morality, order, harmony, goodness, the seasons, the stars, and cosmic balance. He was seen as a champion of the less fortunate and upholding rights of justice for the poor. By aiding those who traveled by the road, he became Protector of the Road (Luke 10: 25 -37). Those who prayed to Amun had to first demonstrate that they were worthy by confessing their sins:

    “Amun who comes at the voice of the poor in distress, who gives breath to him who is wretched… You are Amun, the Lord of the silent, who comes at the voice of the poor, when I call to you in my distress. You come and rescue me…Though the servant was disposed to do evil, the Lord is disposed to forgive. The Lord of Thebes spends not a whole day in anger; His wrath passes in a moment: none remains. His breath comes back to us in mercy…May your- (page was missing but probably it meant “heart”) be kind; may you forgive; It shall not happen again.”

    After the prayer the prayers would raise his arms and hands up in the air and say in worship and in praise Amun, Amun, Amun or Amen, Amen, Amen as an affirmation or salutation. (2)

    When Amun became the chief deity of Nubia, his name became Amani. Several Nubian kings and queens adopted “Amani” into their own names such as Nubian Pharaoh of the 25th dynasty Tanwetamani. He was also depicted as a previous solar woolly ram-headed deity (Daniel 7: 9 and Revelation 1: 14) (3) with small curved horns known as “The Horns of Ammon.” As a ram-headed god, he was associated with fertility and virility.

    The Nubian Kushite Pharaohs who ruled Egypt magnified the importance of Amun. They built new structures and improved old one dedicated to the worship of Amun in Thebes at the Temple of Karnak and other locations as well. But it was his fusion with the sun god Ra that Amun would achieve international attention. Ra was worshipped in Lower Egypt (Nile Delta near the crossroads of Asia and Europe) while Amun was worshipped in Upper Egypt. As Ra was associated with the sun and the creator of all life and the universe, Amun was associated with the wind and was also the creator from where all things were created. With both having the same and similar attributes and popular in both regions, they were combined as one deity, Amun Ra, thus uniting and keeping peace and harmony to the two regions of Egypt.

    A Hymn to Amun Ra:

    "Lord of truth, father of gods, maker of men, creator of all animals, Lord of things that are, creator of the staff of life." (Psalms 104)

    As Amon Ra he appears as merciful:

    “Who hears the prayer, who comes at the cry of the poor and distressed… Beware of him! Repeat him to son and daughter, to great and small; relate him to generations of generations who have not yet come into being; relate him to fishes in the deep, to birds in heaven; repeat him to him who does not know him and him who knows him…Though it may be that the servant is normal in doing wrong, yet the Lord is normal in being merciful. The Lord of Thebes does not spend an entire day angry. As for his anger, in the completion of a moment there is not remnant…As thy Ka (soul) endures! Thou will be merciful.”

    Amon and Ra are also joined to the Egyptian god Ptah to make up a trinity which is very similar to the Christian trinity, in that they are each distinct gods but with unity in plurality. These three gods are one, yet the Egyptian elsewhere insists on the separate identity of each of the three. Here is a text describing this unity:

    “All gods are three: Amun, Ra, and Ptah, whom none equals. He who hides his face as Amun, he appears as Ra, his body is Ptah.”

    Amun was known as the wind god and the mysteriousness of this relationship is implicitly similar and parallel to John 3: 8 in the New Testament of the Bible.

    A Hymn Amun describes how he calms the seas for the trouble sailor:

    “The tempest moves aside for the sailor who remembers the name of Amun. The storm becomes a sweet breeze for he who invokes His name… Amun is more effective than millions for he places Him in his heart. Thanks to Him the single man becomes stronger than a crowd (parallel to Bible scriptures in Mark 4: 35-41, Matthew 8: 23-27, and Luke 8: 22-25).”

    The name Amon appears in the Old Testament of the Bible in Jeremiah 46: 25.

    Amun popularity and worship was great among the pharaohs. Many pharaohs incorporated his name “Amen” into theirs, Amenhotep I, Amenhotep II, Amenhotep III, Amenmesse, Amenminsu, Amenemope, and Tutankhamun (King Tut). Even the Divine Adorative of Amun (priestesses) incorporated his name into theirs such as Amenirdis I and Amenirdis II.

    The Priests of Amun in Thebes would become extremely powerful and wealthy. They would own nearly two-thirds of the temple lands throughout Egypt. They would have a tremendous influence on the pharaohs. A few became pharaohs themselves.

    However, a decline in the popularity and worship of Amun would soon lose its zeal around 1000 BCE. Only the Nubian Kushite Pharaohs of the 25th dynasty would continue promote him with great zest. He would become the national god in Nubia worshipped by all Nubians with the Temple of Amun at Jebel Barkel becoming the center of the Nubian Kushite Kingdom religious worship.

    On the International level, Amun would be worshipped in Libya and in Greece. In Libya an oracle to Amun was established in the Libyan Desert. In 500 CE, Berbers carried an effigy of their god whom they believe was the son of Ammon into battle.

    However, the Greeks probably showed the greatest admiration for Ammon. A Statue of Ammon was worshipped by the Greeks at Thebes and another one at Sparta. Greeks also consulted the Oracle of Ammon in Libya. Greek poet Pindar honored Ammon with a poem. In the southern Greek city Megalopolis Ammon was represented with the head of a ram and the Greeks in Cyrenaica (Libya) dedicated at Delphi a chariot with a statue of Ammon. Alexander the Great journeyed there after the Battle of Issues during his occupation of Egypt and had himself declared “the son of Ammon” by the Oracle. Alexander considered himself divine and was accepted as a Pharaoh by the Egyptians. The Greeks in Egypt and Cyrene considered Ammon a form of Zeus and continued to be worshipped during Greek occupation at Thebes.

    There are several modern words that are derived from the Greek Ammon. Ammonia used as a cleaning fluid, ammonites (extinct shelled cephalopod) shaped like a ram’s horn, and the cornu ammonis region of the brain characterized by horned like layers of dark and light bands.

    English writer and poet John Milton in his book Lost Paradise identifies Ammon in the Bible to Ham (black )and that the Gentiles called him Libyan Jove.

    The Temple of Amun at Karnak in Thebes now Luxor

    Last edited by the moor; 11-10-2020 at 01:15 PM.

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  3. #17
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    Many believe that the Hyksos were Canaanite or Levantines. Here they are depicted as brown skinned or people of color. Some including Josephus have associated them as probably the Israelites and their Exodus.

    hyhsos or canaanites.jpg

    Abisha the Hyksos who is also shown in the above image.


    Hyksos sphinxes are not really Hyksos but the Hyksos inscribed their names on them. Many believe this was done to show a relationship (physical) to the sphinxes. Note the Hamitic or Kushite African feature of the sphinxes.

    hyksos sphinxes.jpg

    Sphinx of the Nubian Kushite Pharaoh Taharqo of Egypt. Note the similarity to the Hyksos sphinxes in the above image.

    sphinx of tara.jpg

    Retjenu associated with Hyksos in some Egyptian inscriptions. It is also an ancient Egyptian name for Canaanite and Syrian.

    Retjenu Egyptian for Canaanite or syrian.jpg


    1. There has been much speculation about who were the Hyksos. Some say they were European invadesr while other say they were invaders from Asia. However, there is also evidence and some which is physical (light brown, brown, and dark brown with some facial features similar of Hamitic or African people) that they were Levantines (Syria, Israel, Palestine, Jordan and Lebanon) or and Canaanites (Phoenicia, Philistia, Israel).

    2. Amen is used in religious services as an affirmation or confirmation response. It is mostly used as a concluding word or as a response to a prayer in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. It is also used colloquially to express strong agreement. Amen is a very common expression in Semitic, Afroasiatic (Hamitic/Semitic), and Biblical Aramaic languages. Its origins are Hebrew meaning “so be it” which the Greeks also used as its meaning. In English, it is also used as verily or truly.

    Controversy has arisen as to whether Amen is not only used as a word or term that is affirmative or confirmative but that it is actually referring to the ancient Egyptian god Amun or Amen. Most western theologians state that Amen in the Bible, Torah, and Quran is not used in the acknowledgement to the god Amen and has no etymology links to it.

    However, many eastern theologians state that there is a correlation between the Egyptian god Amen and Amen in the Bible and other modern religious faiths. Their rational is based on the fact that Amen does not appear in the Bible until Numbers 5:22. This is after the Exodus of the Israelites out of Egypt. It is well known that the Israelites spent 430 years in Egypt (Exodus 12: 40 - 41). In fact, when they left, they were more Egyptians and Egyptianized that they were Israelites. Moses himself had spent 40 years living with royalty and was well trained in Egyptian culture and religion. He was even mistaken as an Egyptian by soon to be wife Zipporah (Exodus 2: 19). Balak (Numbers 22: 5) saw the Israelites and knew instantly that they came from Egypt.

    It is not inconceivable that the Amen worshipped by the Israelites in Egypt is also in the Bible, Torah, and Quran. Nor is it inconceivable to think that amen was used, not in worship or praise to the Egyptian god but in worship or praise to the God of Israelites. Many have stated that this is no different that celebrating Christmas and Easter in Christianity, in which both are originally pagan celebrations, but the focus is on the worship of Christ. Words can sound alike and even be spelled alike but can have different meanings as to how they are applied.

    3. Amun was portrayed as a ram-headed god. The Bible (NIV version) verse in Daniel refers to God as “hair on his head was white like wool.” In the Bible (NIV version) verse in Revelation “His head and hair were white like wool.” The ram, a male sheep, like nearly all sheep have white hair that is woolly. Also, the head of a sheep is also white, as is mentioned in Revelation. Only in the rare circumstances does a sheep have black hair and a black head, otherwise known as a “black sheep.” This is a rare mutation. Most mutations are light or white, such as the white elephant or white whale. But in the sheep, the mutation is black. Many believe that the God in the Old Testament of Daniel is being compared to the Egyptian god Amun. And in the New Testament Revelation, Jesus is being compared to the Egyptian god Amun. Woolly hair is also associated with Hamitic people or people of African descent. However, nothing could more striking than the comparison in Revelation 3: 14. Amen used in this context is not referring to “so be it” but to a person or being which is Christ.

    Author’s Notes:

    In writing this post, I included several Biblical scriptures from the Old and New Testaments. I did this to show the Egyptian similarities and relationship between the two. This does not mean an actual worship of any Egyptian pagan deity or any Egyptian pagan religious practice among religious believers (Jews, Christians, and Muslims) but to show that there is a presence.

    Another similarity between Egyptian religion and Judaism is the Holy of Holies. Both the Temple of Amun at Karnak and Solomon's Temple (before it was destroyed by the Romans in 70 BCE) in Jerusalem have one. A place where God literally dwells on earth.

    Last edited by the moor; 12-02-2020 at 05:13 PM.

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  5. #18
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    The Temple of Karnak dedicated to the Theban triad of the Egyptian gods Amun, Mut, and Khonsu built by Africans. It is one of the largest temple complexes in the world. It was beautifully and colorfully decorated and must have been an awesome sight. Yet, it is not in our schools history books. But the pantheon is.

  6. #19
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    nubian lion headed god ap.jpg

    Apedemak the lion god and now at the head of the hierarchy is seen followed by the Egyptian Horus (many argue that this is Ra) and then by the Egyptian god Amun (ram's head). They are paying honor to a Nubian Kandake (queen) and probably her co-ruler (husband or son)

    Note: Some have stated that the two of figures which represent Apedemak and Horus or Ra can be found in Ezekiel 1: 10. They claim that this is not related to the Greek representation of Fire, Wind, Earth, and Water because of the time it was written. The ancient Israelites were an Afroasiatic or Hamitic/Semitic people. Both Hamitic and Semitic cultures represented their deities or religious figures with wings, heads of birds, and the body of a lion (Semites used the bull or ox as well). The ancient Israelites were not at this time Greek (Hellenic) Afroasiatic or European Hamite/Semite.


    Nubian God Apedemax

    Nubian God Apedemax was known as the “Lion-Headed” Kushite warrior god. He was mainly worshipped by the Meroitic people of Nubia at the Temple of Naqa. He was their god of war and they believe that he brought the victories over their enemies. Apedemax is represented by a three-headed lion with four arms and the body of a snake. But most of the time images of his appear as a man with a single lion head. There are temples dedicated to him in the region just south of Meroe called Butana where his cult in mainly centered. But he would become popular to the point that he would replace Amun in the hierarchy of gods worshipped.

    Last edited by the moor; 12-03-2020 at 12:02 PM.

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  8. #20
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    Artist rendition of Persian King Cambyses II and Egyptian King Psamtik II after the Persians had defeated the Egyptians. The city of Saba would become Meroe, named after King Cambyses II sister.


    Egyptian Pharaoh Psamtik II

    Pharaoh Psamtik.jpg

    Pyramids of Meroe

    meroe pyramids.jpg

    Meroe was known throughout the region for its fine jewelry. This piece looks like the Egyptian goddess Maat and is dated around 530 BCE.

    meroe jewelry 530 BCE.jpg

    Meroe gold jewelry piece dated around 270 BEC to 50 BCE

    Meroe jewelry.jpg

    Nubian Kushite Kingdom of Meroe

    Meroe is an ancient Nubian Kushite city located on the east bank of the Nile River between the fifth and sixth cataracts approximately 120 miles northeast of Khartoum and 27 miles from the nearest town of Shendi. It is near of group of villages called Bagrawiyah. Meroe is also located on the upper fringes of the Butana region of Sudan. In ancient days it was known as the Island of Meroe and was between the Atbara River (Black Nile) and the Nile River. Meroe was half-way between the Atbara and Khartoum. It would be joined with two other cities, Naqa and Musawwarat es Sufra, to form the Meroitic cities of the Meroe Nubian Kushite Kingdom.

    The Nubian Kushite Kingdom of spanned the period between 800 BCE – 350 CE. The last of its great capitals was Meroe. The Nubian Kushite King Aspelta move the capital south to what is now Meroe after Napata, the present capital to the North, was sacked by Egyptian Pharaoh Psamtik II around 591 BCE. Many believe that Meroe was chosen because it was on the fringe of the summer rainfall belt. The area was also rich in iron ore and hardwood for iron working. It was also accessible to trade routes to the Red Sea and near other river tributaries that fed into the Nile.

    Meroe was named after the Persian (Iranian) King Cambyses II (son of Cyrus the Great) in honor of his sister who was called by that name. Before the city had been called Sabe (10, named after the country’s original founder and one of the sons of Kush (Cush, Genesis 10: 7). In Isaiah 45:14 Sabe is described as being tall (NIV version) as are many Nubians. King Cambyses would defeat Pharaoh Psamtik II and later rule over Nubia, establishing a Persian Egyptian garrison in the country.

    From 543 - 315 BCE, kings ruled over both Napata and Meroe. However, the seat of government would be in Meroe. The first king to rule from Meroe was Analmaye. Greek historian Herodotus called Meroe “a great city…said to be the mother city of the other Ethiopians” (2). But many of the Nubian Kushite Kings, Queens, and other royalty were still being buried in Nuri six miles from Jebal Barkal near Napata. Their tombs are in the form of pyramids taking on the Egyptian style, thus beginning the transformation from mound burial to pyramid. King Taharqa is buried there (King Tantamani is buried at el-Kurru). However, some were beginning to be buried at Meroe, eventually establishing it as the royal burial site. The Egyptian Nubian god Amun would still be worshipped at the temple in Napata but building of another temple to him was beginning to be built at Meroe.

    It was also during this time that Meroe became an industrial and economic base in Nubia, upon which its wealth was based. It had a strong iron industry and international trade with the regions of the Mediterranean, Middle East, India, and China. Metal working is thought to have been occurring in Meroe by use of bloomeries and even possibly blast furnaces. Some have even called Meroe the Birmingham of Africa because of its production and trade of iron (other debate this as being a little exaggerated). Iron was one of the most important metal worldwide and the metalworkers at Meroe were some of the best in the world.

    Meroe was also becoming known for its textiles and jewelry. Its textiles were based on cotton and its production reached its height around 400 BCE. Meroe was Nubia’s center of gold production and trade. Some believe that the Egyptian name for gold “nub” is the origin of the name Nubia. Trade in exotic animals from further south in African was also a part of their economy as well as the trade in slaves.

    Around 300 BCE, Meroe is now firmly established as the capital of Nubia. All the kings and queen are being buried there. The first king during this period would be Aktisanes. Napata only importance is the Temple of Amun. It would remain the main place of worship to the god Amun. But the Meroitic civilization would still continue as a thriving economy. Their expertise in pottery would become world known. Elaborate decorated wares was a strong tradition in the Middle Nile. They also carried a significate social status which was also related to mortuary rites. The use of the sakia to move water in irrigation would increase crop production. The sakia which was powered by oxen would replace the shaduf which was powered by humans, thus saving time and increase the irrigation output. They used technology from ancient Kerma to build kilns in which they manufactured everyday object such as razors, mirrors, and tweezers made of bronze. The Meroitic rulers, although autocratic, had great control over the people, not by means of force but by political means in keeping the people contented thus, under their control.

    From 270 BCE to 100 CE, Meroe was now the center of the Nubian Kushite Empire. It was at its peak in dominance and glory in the region. They excelled in mathematics and even created a geometry that they used in making an early version of the sun clock or dial. There is also evidence of the use of trigonometry that they got from the Egyptians. This is probably why there was a rise in building construction.

    It was also during this period that the Meroitic Nubians began to use antibodies. From examination of mummies dating to 300 CE, there is indication of the antibody tetracycline in their bones. Many believe that earthen jars containing the grain used for making beer contained the bacterium streptomycedes , which produces tetracycline. Even though the Nubian didn’t know anything about tetracycline, they knew that beer made them feel better health wise.

    Even though the kings still ruled, it was often a shared ruled with their mothers called the Queen Mother or Kandake (Candace in Greek). The Meroitic Nubian Kushite Empire was one of the earliest empires where women had an equal footing with men and could gain power and control as rulers.

    Last edited by the moor; 12-06-2020 at 07:32 PM.

  9. #21
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    Temple Ruins of Meroe. Note the elephant.

    meroe ruins of a temple note the elephant.jpg

    Kandake (Candace, aka known as warrior queens) Amanitore

    meroe candace_Amanitore.jpg

    King Natakamani probably the co-ruler of Nubia alongside Kandake Amanitore

    meroe natakamani co-ruler with amanitorie.jpg

    Kandake Amanishakheto is in the middle paying honor and offering a tribute to the Egyptian/Nubian Lion-headed god Apedemak. Behind her is the goddest Amesemi, wife of Apedemak.

    meroe Candace Amanishakheto.jpg

    Noted African scholar Cheikh Anta Diop states that this figure is Kandake Amanirenas, the one-eyed Nubian Kushite Kandake who defeated or halted the advance of the Roman Army into Nubia.

    meroe candace Amanirenas-4.jpg

    This would also be a time when the Meroitic priests would arise in power. They would become so powerful that they would have the ability to decide who would become king or queen. One of the most popular kings was Arakamani aka by his Greek name of Ergamenes ruled from 270 BCE – 260 BCE. He was educated in Hellenistic culture and was considered the first Egyptian Greco king of Nubia. He had a disdain for Egyptian culture and tried to rid Nubia of many of its influences. He preferred a Nubian Greek African identity. This did not sit well with the Meroitic priests of Nubia. In fact, they wanted him dead. But Meroe was paying tribute or taxes to the Ptolemaic Greek rulers of the region. Arakamani was strong willed and was able through his political influence and skill prevent them from succeeding and thus, overpower the priesthood and had them killed.

    Religious worship would also change. The god ram-headed god Amun would be replaced by some in the hierarchy as the main god of worship by the lion-headed god Apedemak, the god of war.

    The Meroitic civilization would also develop their first written script. The language which was of Afroasiatic or Hamitic/Semitic origin was written in two forms of the Meroitic alphabet: Meroitic Cursive, which was written with a stylus and used for general record-keeping and Meroitic Hieroglyphic, which was carved in stone and used for royal or religious documents. However, it has not been deciphered and is not understood. The hieroglyphics was found engraved on the Temple of Queen Shanakdakhete. The cursive is written horizontally and reads from right to left, the same as other Semitic languages. Around 400 CE the language would no longer be spoken and would become extinct.

    Roman conquest of Egypt led to Meroitic Nubian Kushite raids into the occupied Roman areas of Egypt. The Nubian were led by a powerful one-eyed warrior Kandake named Amanirenas, who ruled from 40 BCE – 10 BCE. Amanirenas would be the first of several warrior Kandake rulers of Nubia. Many feel that the raids were in response to Nubian ambition and the high taxes impose on them by Rome (3). In response, the Roman governor Petronius of Egypt invaded Nubia to put an end to these raids. The Romans (with Egyptians fighting with them) looted and sacked Nubia as far south to Napata, as well as sacking it. Then they return back to the borders where they occupied Egypt. In retaliation, the Nubians crossed the border into Upper Egypt and looted many statues and other things from the Egyptian towns near the first cataract of the Nile at Aswan. They even took the head off the statue of Augusta Caesar and carried it back to Nubia. But once again the Roman Army under Petronius geared up to invade Nubia. However, they would be met by a strong force of Nubia soldiers with elephants under the command of Kandake Amanirenas at Qasr Ibrim (border of Upper Egypt and Lower Nubia). The Nubia attacked but were repelled by the Romans. The Nubian then sent ambassadors to Petronius to make a peace settlement. Petronius relieved seemed eager to strike a deal. A deal was reached that was favorable to the Nubians. They would no longer have to pay tribute or taxes to the Romans and the Roman could keep a garrison at the border of Egypt and Nubia. The two sides agreed to start trading with each other. However, the head off of the statue of Augusta Caesar was never returned by was place under the steps of a temple in Meroe. When people walked into the temple, they walked over the head of Augusta Caesar.

    After Kandake Amanirenas came Kandake Amanishakheto. She ruled from 10 BEC – 1 CE. She was a rather large woman known for her love of jewelry. She was also a builder and was responsible for many building projects. She would be succeeded by Kandake Amanitore. She would rule from 1 CE – 20 CE. Many believe that she was probably a co-ruler alongside King Natakamani, but it is not known whether he was her husband or son. She was known for her many building projects as well and is considered the last great builder of the Nubian Kushite Empire. She had her royal palace at Jebal Barkal. She rebuilt the Temple of Amun at Meroe and at Napata after it had been destroyed by the Romans. She built reservoirs at Meroe for the retention of water. More than 200 pyramids were built during her time which indicated a time of prosperity. Finally, Kandake Amanitaraqide would rule from 21 CE- 40 CE. She also would rule alongside the husband or son of Kandake Amanitore. She had her own court and probably acted as a landholder. She also held a prominent role as a secular regent. Many believe that she is the Ethiopian Candace mentioned in Acts 8: 26-40 of the Bible.

    The Romans would make one last foray into Meroitic Kush in 61 CE. Roman Emperor Nero sent an army into Nubia to find the source of the Nile or as some have stated to plan to conquer Nubia. However, when they reached Meroe, they were escorted as far south to the Sudd (swampy wetland) that was impenetrable. Unable to go any further, the Romans retreated back to Roman occupied Egypt.

    From 100 CE – 200 CE the Meroitic Nubian Kushite Empire would begin to decline. Due to their wars with Rome and the decline in their industrial output, left them unable to maintain their former glory. Many believe this was due to their overuse of the land or by deforestation. They had cut down so many trees that for the use of burning and producing iron that they hadn’t any more source of wood. This would also rob the soil of nutrients needed to grow other crops. But others content that they fell victim to the drying of the land due to climate change.

    Whichever the case, around 300 CE the empire, due to internal strife cause by political and economic disarray, began to disintegrate into de facto government rule. Weaken by such disorder and divisions, in 350 CE the Christian Aksumite Kingdom of Ethiopia and Yemen conquered Meroe and burned it. This would be the beginning of Christianity in Nubia. By 550 CE, Nubia had shredded all of its former Egyptian and Nubian religion had become Christianized.


    1. According to Hebrew oral tradition Moses, when he was a young prince, led a military expedition into Nubia as far as the city of Meroe, then called Seba. The city was built near where two great river converged (Black Nile and Nile). It was also encircled by a great wall and ruled by a renegade king. Moses had his men carry baskets of sedge (certain type of weed plant) each containing an ibis (bird-like heron) to be released only when they were in enemy country. The purpose of the birds were to kill the deadly snakes that were in the country. Moses lay siege to Seba and subdued it with the help of the king's daughter. She had agreed to deliver the city to Moses if he agreed to marry her on the solemn promise of an oath.

    2. Ethiopians does not refer to just the country and people of Ethiopia that we know today. Ethiopian is Greek which means land or people of burnt faces. This means any dark skinned of black person from mainly Southern Egypt, Sudan, Northern Africa, the Western, Eastern, and Southern Arabian Peninsular, Southern India, Eastern Africa, Nubia, Ethiopia even as well as Australia.

    3. Both Greeks and the Roman imposed taxes or tributes on Nubia. This was to keep them from invading Nubia and Nubia thus having peace. However, there was still trading between them. The Greeks were more lenient probably because they had a better relationship with the Nubians and admired them culturally more than the Romans. The Romans were much harsher and more demanding. This provoked the Nubians to rebel against them.

    Last edited by the moor; 01-06-2021 at 12:47 PM.

  10. #22
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    nubian wrestling 1.jpg

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    Nubian Wrestlers

    In the Nubian Mountains of the South Kordofan State in Southern Sudan, the people carry on a tradition that is 4,000 years old. That tradition is wrestling. It is one of Nubia’s most popular sport. The Nubians were known throughout the ancient world, not only as skilled archers and tremendous warriors (1) but also as superb wrestlers. They are often depicted on the walls of Egyptian temples in wrestling competitions. Wrestling matches are major events in small rural communities and a sense of pride among different tribal communities. However, when held in larger cities, they are often attended by people of the same ethic and tribal affiliation as those who are wrestling.

    In Nubian wrestling there is no pinning and submissions. The wrestlers grab and hold each other until one get an advantage and is able to throw and toss his opponent to the ground. They train under former champions, performing athletic dances, learn traditional songs, and drinking a lot of milk. They avoid sexual activity and abstain from drinking beer (which is prohibited by Islamic Sudanese Law).

    Wrestling tournaments occur during festival time at the beginning of the planting and harvest seasons. The purpose is to build up group or tribal identity and show the prowess of their young men. The wrestlers represent their villages and not themselves.


    1. Nubians were known for being courageous warriors, something that the Egyptian and Romans knew very well. They were often hired by other armies such as Egyptians, Assyrians, Greeks, Romans, Persians, and the Israelites. In the Bible in Isaiah 18:2, they are described as fierce. In 2nd Samuel 18: 21-32, they are fighting with the Israelites. It is a Kushite or Nubian who carries the news to King David that Absalom is dead. In 2nd Chronicles 14: 9-15, Zerah a Kushite (probably a Kushite/Egyptian king or a commander representing a Kushite/Egyptian association) is defeated by the Israelite with the aid of God.

    This match probably is taking place in a city.

    This match is in a rural village but the people are just as enthusiastic.

    Last edited by the moor; 12-28-2020 at 12:56 PM.

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  12. #23
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    Video 2: A Recap of Ancient Nubia

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    The Bahr el Ghazal River flows into Lake No.

    bahar al-Ghazal n. w. flows into lake no lake no flows into white nile.jpg

    Large vegetation of papyrus and reeds block river passages making it almost impossible to navigate.


    Humans clear the vegetation and live of the floating small land masses.

    sudd 2.jpg

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    The Sudd: One of the World’s Largest Wetlands and Swamps

    We often think of Africa as a land of deserts, semi-arid grasslands or vast savannahs, coastal forest, and jungle tropical forest. However, it is also home to the sixth largest wetland and swamp regions in the world (sometimes during the rainy season it is close to being the third). This region is located in Southern Sudan and is called The Sudd (Arabic meaning barrier or obstruction) because of the large floating and often thick vegetation islands called mats. The White Nile River (later joins the Blue Nile River to form the Nile River) flows through it. Because of its thick vegetation of floating plants (sometimes 18 miles in length), river flooded and rain flooded grasslands, as well as wooded grassland on the edges (some have now been cultivated by the indigenous population) the Sudd was for millenniums un-navigational and impenetrable. The ancient Egyptians and later the Romans while traveling down the White Nile came to the area and failed to penetrate it.

    The Sudd Wetlands begin at Mongalla a town on the East side of the White Nile and 45 miles north of the Juba, the capital of South Sudan. It stretches northeast to the Sobat River and wetland area, where the Sobat drains into the White Nile. It stretches on the northwest to the Bahr el Ghazal River, where the Bahr el Ghazal drains into Lake No. The White Nile flows into Lake No at the south and Lake No drains into the White Nile at the north. The White Nile continues north and leaves the Sudd region.

    The people who inhabit the Sudd belong to two groups, the Nuer and the Dinka. The Nuer live in the Northeastern part of the Sudd and of South Sudan. The also live in some areas of Western Ethiopia. They are the second largest ethnic group in South Sudan and the second tallest people in the world. They are semi-nomadic. The Nuer are also a pastoral people who raise and herd cattle. But cattle are not used for a food source but are interwoven into all parts of their culture and daily life, from religious ceremonies, marriages, and everyday daily needs. Their main diet consists of fish and millet. Millet is also used as a porridge or beer.

    The Dinka are the other main ethnic group of the region. They are the largest ethnic group in South Sudan. They live near the White Nile in the South and to the Northwestern part of the Sudd along the Bahr el Ghazal River. They also raise and herd cattle. And like the Nuer, cattle are not used for a food source but are interwoven into all parts of their culture and daily life. They also cultivate crops such as sorghum, millet and cash crops such as groundnuts, sesame, and gum-arabic. The Dinka are the tallest people in the world.

    The Sudd in home of over 400 species of birds such as the shoebill, white pelican, the black crown crane and ostrich. It also provides food and water for numerous migrating birds. Since the Sudd is located near the other fringes of the Sahel (semi-arid region between the Sudd and the Sahara Desert) many animals migrate annually through the Sudd before the start of the rainy season. Herds of antelope participate in one of the larges migrations on earth. Elephants also make the migration as well.

    There are many varieties of fish. The shallow water is frequented by the Nile crocodiles and hippopotamuses.

    However, the on again off again civil war in South Sudan has prevented the preservation and the way of life for the residence of the Sudd (humans and animals). With the abundance of rifles, poaching has become a problem, especially for the elephants. Three game preserves exist in the region.

    The Sudd has a short rainy season. However when it begins, it turns the Sudd into the world's third largest wetland. Many animals migrant north to drier ground and food. However, aquatic live and animals that live in water flourishes.

    After the rainy season, migrating animals return to a lush green land. The water from the rainy season has evaporated or transpired due to the hot tropical climate near the equator. Other water has been absorbed by the thick vegetation.

    The Sudd

    This video shows more of the inhabitants of the Sudd. It also shows how the civil war in Southern Sudan has affected the area and human travel in the region.

    Last edited by the moor; 02-24-2021 at 05:01 PM.

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    nuer map.jpg

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    The Nuer are considered the second tallest people in the world.

    nuer 1.jpg

    nuere and their cattle.jpg

    The Nuer are seminomadic and change locations during the beginning and during the ending of the rainy season.


    The Nuer People of South Sudan

    The Nuer people live in the Upper Nile region of South Sudan which is the Northeastern part of the country. A group of them also live in Gambella region of Ethiopia. They speak a Nuer language which is in the family of the Nilotic languages. The Nuer are derived from or are an offshoot of the Dinka people. They are the second largest ethnic group in South Sudan and the second tallest people in the world. They are a pastoral people who raise and herd cattle. However, the cattle are not used as a food source but are interwoven into all parts of their culture and daily life, from religious ceremonies, marriages, politics, economy, and everyday daily needs. Every part of the cattle is used from something, even the urine and dung. Their main diet consists of fish and millet. Millet is also used as a porridge or beer.

    The Nuer are a Dinka people that migrated out of Gezira in Southeastern, South Sudan between the Blue Nile and the White Nile. They settled in the barren dry land they called “Kwer Kwong,” or what is now Southern Kordofan in Southern, South Sudan. After centuries of isolation from other Dinka and influence of the Luo people of near the area, they would develop a separate identity from the Dinka. But due to the Bagarra Arab slave raids of the East African Slave Trade or Indian Ocean Slave Trade in the late 1700s, they migrated into Kordofan in Central South Sudan and then into present-day Bentiu in Northern, South Sudan. However, further Arab slave raids as well as flooding and overpopulation cause them to move further eastwards into Northeastern, South Sudan and on the edges of Western Ethiopia.

    The Nuer are semi-nomadic. They move and change locations when the rainy season starts. This is mainly for their cattle to prevent them from getting hoof disease and to find a drier area to provide the cattle with enough food. Cattle is very important marriage. The groom and his family must negotiate with the bride and her family on the amount of cattle he is to give them, if the wants her to be his wife. If they can’t come to terms on an agreement, the no marriage will take place. A man’s worth and status (he stands out but is not treated better than anyone else) in Nuer society is based on the amount of cattle he owns. Girls marry around the age of 17 and 18, even though they can become engaged before they reach age of marriage. A woman is free to marry any man of her choosing as long as he owns cattle. However, if he does not, then the parents usually arrange or chose a husband for her.

    Kinship and relationships among the Nuer are very important. Kinship usually extents outside of the immediate family. Neighbors care for and look after each other’s children as well as any other child. They share with each other. If one has a surplus of food, then it is shared among all. Often an exchange of cattle can tie someone to another as kin.

    The Nuer believe that God is the spirit of the sky or the spirit who is in the sky known as Kuoth Nhial (God in Heaven) the creator. They also believe that God comes to them through rain, lighting, and thunder and that the rainbow is God’s necklace. The sun, moor, and stars are manifestation or signs of God, who is a spirit.

    They also believe in lesser spirits with the spirits of the air being more powerful than other spirits, such as the spirit of war. Nuers believe that when a man or woman dies, the flesh, the life, and the soul separate. The flesh goes back to the earth while the breath or life goes back to God. But the soul that signifies human individuality and personality remains alive as a shadow or reflection. It departs from this world together with the sacrifice of an ox, to the place of the ghosts.

    In the 1940, Christian missionaries came to South Sudan and to the Nuers. They began to teach evangelized them. Thirty years later, there were 200 Nuer congregations. However, only 1% identified themselves as Christians. Many would still practice their own religion often combining it with Christianity.

    The Nuer practice scarification, facial marking as part of an initiation into manhood. These pattens may vary among different subgroups of Nuer, but the most common one exists of six parallel lines cut across the forehead with a razor, often with a dip in the lines above the nose. Females also under go some scarification, but it is usually dotted patterns. However, the practice of scarification is not as popular as it once was. Many of the younger generation having been in contact with western culture are beginning to forego and abandon this practice.

  15. #26
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    dinka 3.png

    Dinka people are the tallest people in the world.


    Dinka women are the tallest women in the world.

    dinka 1.jpg

    Charles Barkley looking up at Manute Bol (RIP) who was a Dinka

    dinka manute bol and charles barkley.jpg

    Many Dinka have adopted wester culture and live abroad.

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    The Dinka People of South Sudan

    The Dinka are a Nilotic people of South Sudan. The live along the White Nile in the region of Bahr el Ghazal from Central South Sudan to Southwestern South Sudan. Like the Nuer whom they have a genetic link, the Dinka are pastoral and agriculture people. The raise and herd cattle which are an intrical part of every aspect of their culture. They grow food crops as well a cash-crops. They are also excellent spear fishermen.

    The Dinka are the largest ethnic group in South Sudan. They number around 5 million. Many of them live abroad. They are also the tallest people in the world. They call themselves “Dinka” which means “people” and speak a Nilotic language common among those in Eastern Sudan.

    The Dinka have no centralize political authority but instead, comprise many independent but interlinked clans. They originated in Gezira located in Southeastern Sudan. They moved north and northwest due to the Muslim Arab and Muslim African slave raids of the East African Slave Trade (Indian Ocean Slave Trade) that was very prominent during the early 17th century.

    A large number of Dinka are Christian. They were converted to Christianity by Anglican missionaries. Unlike the Nue,r whom only 1% identity as being Christian, they have adapted the ways of Christianity and have abandon many but not all of the old religious rituals and practices (those in rural areas still keep many of their old customs). They still practice scarification as an induction into manhood, but as with many of the young who have been abroad, it is a practice that is in decline.

    Because they are mainly Christian, this has put them in conflict with the Islamic Sudanese government in the north, the Republic of Sudan. War between the north Republic of Sudan and the south Republic of Sudan (which broke away from the Republic of Sudan) had been an on occurring affair. In 2011, the South Republic of Sudan gained its independence from the northern Republic of Sudan.

    A large number of Dinka live abroad and have become a fixture in the society. Many play professional basketball and several have become NBA players.

    Last edited by the moor; 02-28-2021 at 01:52 AM.

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