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    Africa: The Beginning


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    A Black Women: The Mother of All Mankind


    The overwhelming majority of a human's DNA is contained in the chromosomes in the nucleus of the cell, but mtDNA is an exception. An individual inherits his or her cytoplasm (all cell material outside of the nucleus) and the organelles contained by that cytoplasm exclusively from the maternal (female) ovum (egg cell); sperm only pass on the chromosomal DNA, all paternal (male) mitochondria are digested in the oocyte. When a mutation arises in a mtDNA molecule, the mutation is therefore passed in a direct female line of descent. Mutations are copying mistakes in the DNA sequence. Single mistakes are called single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).

    This video shows how the first modern day humans (all humans today) left their origins in Africa and migrated to all parts of the world. This is done by tracing the mutations found in the Mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) of females, which is passed from one generation to another by daughter to daughter. Males have it but can’t pass it on to the next generation. Even though humans have different eye shape, skin colors, hair texture, etc. by tracing the marks left by the mutations on Mitochondria DNA, which is like a map or following the “Yellow Brick Road,” we are able to trace all humans back to one female ancestor that lived in Africa roughly 150,000 years ago. She will become known to geneticists and evolutionary scientists as Mitochondria Eve.










    Last edited by the moor; 06-15-2020 at 10:20 AM.

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    Africa: The Origin of Bible Adam aka Scientific Adam or Y-Chromosome Adam and the Father of All Mankind.


    Just like the Mitochondria DNA of the female is passed from female to female to link all females of humans to one common ancestor, the Y-Chromosome DNA which only the male processes is passed from male to male to link all males of humans to one common ancestor.



    Last edited by the moor; 08-19-2020 at 06:05 PM.

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    This video substantiates and verifies much of the previous videos including more.


    Last edited by the moor; 07-09-2020 at 02:33 PM.

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    Your research produced some astonishing videos. I always wanted to visit Africa.
    Who Are You?

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    Quote Originally Posted by Sultry View Post
    Your research produced some astonishing videos. I always wanted to visit Africa.


    I always wanted to visit it as well.

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    nubia.jpg


    Brief History of Nubia


    The first inhabitants of Nubia came from Sudan and the Sahara Desert Region roughly 9,000 years ago as the Sahara began dying up. They would settle in scattered small settlements in fertile land along the Nile River. They would farm and raise cattle. Later, small settlements would form into larger ones and larger ones into communities, communities into towns, and towns into cities. They would trade and establish commerce among themselves and with Egyptians as well, sharing ideas, technology, and religious beliefs. Many of the gods worshipped by the Egyptians were also worshiped by the Nubian and some can be found in the Bible. One god in particular is often referred to by Christians, Jews, and Muslims, not in actual worship but as a religious practice. A Nubian Egyptian king or Pharaoh is in the Bible and plays an important role as an ally to Israel. They would establish a civilization and kingdom that would have great influence on many of the surrounding cultures which has influenced the world even today.

    The Nubians were rich in mineral resources and the center of gold production. They were merchants and traded in ivory, ebony, animal skins and precious stones. They were skilled artisans. They were also great warriors and skilled archers that the Egyptians called them “Ta-Seti,” The Land of the Bow. They were the chief rivals of the Egyptians and would be conquered by them, conquered them, re-conquered by them and conquered them.

    Nubia is a region along the Nile River encompassing the area just below Aswan in Upper Kemet in what we now call Egypt and Khartoum in Central Sudan. The ancient Egyptians called their land Kemet meaning black land and may not have been referring to their skin color but the to the black soil of the Nile flood plain which was distinct from the red desert soil. In the local Sudanese language the word for black is also used for the color of blue. Nubia was the seat of one of the earliest civilization in ancient Africa, the Kerma culture. It would also be the center of the Kingdom of Kush and would give rise to the Egyptian 25th dynasty ruled by Kushite kings that ruled over Egypt from 732 BCE to 653 BCE.

    By the 4th century CE, the Kushite influence would be come to an end with the invasion of Nubia by the Ethiopia Kingdom of Aksum which brought with it Christianity. Later, a people of unknown origins (many believe were nomadic) called Nobatia, from where the name Nubia is derived, occupied the area and would convert to Christianity.

    Nearly after a thousand years, Nubia in decline would be divided into the northern part ruled by the Ottomans and the southern part ruled by the Sennar Sultanate, often referred to as Blue Sultanate which Northern Sudanese often referred black people as “Blue.” Blue means black as the Blue Nile is referred because it brings sediment from the highlands of Ethiopia into the Nile valley turning the water dark as so to appear as black, thus making the soil black and fertile. With both came Islam and Nubia’s swift adoption of it and the Arabization of the Nubian people. From 1867 – 1914, Nubian would be united with Egypt under the control of the Egyptian Khedivate which was a proxy of the Ottoman Empire. In 1914, Britain would take control of Egypt and Nubia. Britain would establish a protectorate called the Sultanate of Egypt.

    During WWI, Britain would defeat the Ottoman Empire expelling them from the region. Egypt would gain independence from Britain in 1952. In 1956, Sudan would separate from the British and Egyptian rule and become an independent country. Nubia would be divided between southern Egypt and northern and central Sudan, as it was 4,500 years ago.





    Nubian Tribal War Chant

    Last edited by the moor; 08-11-2020 at 01:18 PM.

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    Nabta Playa Observatory near Kerma, Nubia is dated to around 7,500 BCE. It predates Stonehenge by 2,000 years.

    Nabta Playa astronical observatory or calendar.jpg


    The Western Deffufa in the Center of Kerma was a three story mud brick structure used for religious ceremonies. Inside are passageways and chambers. At the top is a shrine.

    Western_Deffufa_-_Kerma.jpg


    Kerma's Central District at its peak. The Western Deffufa is in the center.

    kerma reconstruction.jpg


    Nubian Archers were among the most important mercenary units recruited from Kush, and were a popular theme in Egyptian wooden figurines, such as the ones found in the tomb of Mesehti, an 11th Dynasty nomarch of the 13th nomos of Upper Egypt around 2,000 BCE.

    nubian archers found in tomb of 11th dynasty king.jpg


    Kerma Nubian Jewelry

    nubian jewerly.jpg



    Kerma: Early Nubian Civilization


    People from Sudan and the Eastern Sahara moved into Nubia around 9,000 (7,000 BCE) years ago due to the changing climate and the drying of the Sahara into what is now the world’s largest desert. They settled along the green and fertile land along the Nile. Around 7,000 years ago (5,000 BCE) they began raising and herding cattle, making pottery, and surviving off fruits, legumes, millets, sorghum, tuber, and later farming of local crops. Evidence of their presence can be seen in the rock drawing at Sabu-Jaddi in northern Sudan, showing depictions of wild and domestic animals as well as some barely recognizable human figures. An astronomical observatory or calendar has been found at Nabta Playa which dates to 7500 BCE and predates Stonehenge by 2,000 years.

    The ancient Nubians were divided into three groups according to their location along the Nile, Lower Nubian between the 1st and 2nd cataracts, Middle Nubian between the 3rd and 4th cataracts, and Upper Nubian between the 5th and 6th cataracts. Cataracts are shallow narrow rapids filled with protruding rocks found along certain sections of the Nile. It is nearly impossible for boats to pass through them. People traveling on the Nile would have to disembark and travel on land when they came to a cataract until they passed it. They spoke a Kushite language which was Afroasiatic (Hamitic/Semetic). The also spoke an Eastern Sudanese language which was later infused with the Kushite.

    Around 3,800 BCE, communities were establish in Nubia between the first and second cataracts or just below what is now Aswan. They would development a culture that contained Egyptian symbols. They carried on trade with the Egyptians that included ivory, ebony, and incense from their southern regions in exchanged for olive oil and other products from the Mediterranean basin. They also bartered carnelian (a precious orange colored gem) from the Western Desert as well as for gold from the Eastern Desert.

    These early Nubian buried their dead in oval pits lying on reed mats with some wrapped in leather containing various item belonging to the dead. From the physical examination of their remains, they seem to be akin to the Kushite people of Upper Egypt. However, around 3,100 BCE, this culture would come to an end with the invasion of Egypt’s First Dynasty.

    Another civilization would appear around 3,000 BCE. It would be between the 3rd and 4th cataracts. It would similar to the previous one but much bigger and have a greater influence on the culture. Its influence would extent into Lower Nubia and Upper Egypt.

    The Kerma culture would develop into one of the greatest civilizations in Africa. The main city Kerma would be large urban center. Around 2,500 BCE, it would begin to become a thriving metropolitan area. By 1,700 BEC, it would have a population of 10,000.

    Kerma was a walled city containing a religious building, large circular dwellings, a palace, and well laid out roads. On the East side of the city a funerary temple and chapel (Eastern Deffufa) was laid out. In the center of the city is the Western Deffufa. It is a mud brick temple where ceremonies were performed on top. It is 164 ft. by 82 ft. and stands 59 ft. tall comprising three stories.

    Kerma adapted many cultural ways of the Egyptians. They worshiped Egyptian deities. This is shown in the numerous grave sites, especially those of royalty. It also contains one of the largest cemeteries of ancient times with one containing over 30,000 graves. It is believed that those of the elite class are buried in the middle while being surround in a circle by those buried of the lower class. The Kerma graves were distinct and were called tumulus. They were circular pits covered with white or black stones in a circular mound. At the southern end of Kerma are four large mounds laid in a row (30 ft. in diameter and 9 ft. in height). They are burial sites containing the last of the royal monarchies. They are surrounded by smaller graves. Underneath is a complex structure. A pathway running along the diameter is laid with mud walls supporting the above mound. The mud walls appear to have been once decorated. Some of the royal graves contained inscriptions and reliefs of Egyptian deities such as the falcon headed god Horus. Other Egyptian artifacts have also been found, not just only in the graves of royalty but also regular people as well containing scarab and amulets. The pathway goes to a chamber with a Nubian vault and a wooden door where the king is buried. The king’s bed is elaborate with stoned carved legs. The vaulted chamber lies in the center of structure. It is estimated that around 300 humans and 1,000 cattle were sacrificed to accompany the king in the afterlife.

    Kerma was populated by villages scattered along the Nile. These villages grew agricultural products which made the bulk of its realm. However, some areas or villages were pastoral and were used for cattle herded and raising. Later, sheep and goats would be herded and raised obtained from Western Asia or the Middle East by way of Egypt. Other areas were industrial where gold was processed as well as other minerals. The numerous cattle skulls found in royal tombs suggest that they came from districts, some far away, from rural communities to pay tribute to the king. Wealth and status was determined by the number of cattle one possessed.

    However, not all of Kerma and its territory were rural. Kerma itself and Sai Island (island in the middle of the Nile) contained sizeable urbanized populations. Kerma and Sai Island had a wealthy elite class and officials who oversaw trade and commerce throughout the region, which even extended to Lower Nubia to Aswan. Kerma played an important intermediary role in trade of luxury items from the Central African interior to Egypt. Kerma had now become a large kingdom rivaling Egypt in economic wealth and power.

    Around the 2,000 BCE, Egypt began to build forts in Upper Egypt to protect against the perceived threat of Nubian’s growing empire. Egypt wanted the vast resources of Nubians wealth which included ivory, gold, cattle, milk products, incense, and etc. Egypt also had skirmishes with the Nubian army composed of very skilled archers.

    Around 1,675, BCE, Egypt was invaded by Asiatic (people east of Egypt) people called Hyksos. They would conquer Lower Egypt to Thebes in Upper Egypt. They would introduce the chariot and the horse to Egypt and to Nubia. The Hyksos also formed an allegiance with the Nubian Kerma Empire. Kerma invaded deep into Egypt between 1,575 and 1,550 BCE. It was a humiliating defeat for Egypt. Many royal statues and monuments were looted from Egypt and taken to Kerma, as a sign of triumph over Egypt.

    In 1,550 BCE, Egypt would expel the Hyksos from its territory. Egypt now turn its sights on Kerma and its Nubian empire. Egypt under Pharaoh Tuthmosis I made several incursions into Lower Nubia and finally Upper Nubia conquering Kerma and destroying it. He would annex Kerma in 1,504 BCE, making it part of the Egyptian kingdom. Kerma Nubia would become increasingly Egyptianized politically, economically, and spiritually. However, rebellion among the Nubian would continue for over 200 years. Egyptian rule would continue until 1,050 BCE.




    Last edited by the moor; 10-10-2020 at 09:50 AM.

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    Nubian Map showing Napata

    nubiamap.jpg


    Nubian Kushite/Egyptian Holy Mountain of Jebel Barkal. Note the faces on the mountain both left and right representing the god Amun.

    Jebel_barkal_rock.jpg


    Ruins of the Temple of Amun

    temple of amun ruins 1.jpg


    The Turin Papyrus Map depicting a road leading to a gold field. It is dated to about 1160 BCE and is considered one of the oldest maps in the world.

    map.jpg


    Nubian Kushite women in a procession in the Temple of Mut

    temple of mut 3.jpg


    The Nubian Kingdom of Kush at Napata


    After the fall or the Egyptian conquering of Kerma, a new kingdom would be established in Nubia around 1,500 BCE. This kingdom would be ruled by Egyptians and the center or capital of this kingdom would be Napata. The inhabitants of this kingdom the Kushites would be under subjugation to the Egyptians. Even though the inhabitants would occasionally rebel against Egyptian rule for over 200 years, it wouldn’t be until 1050 BCE that the inhabitants would once again regain control and power over their land. This new kingdom would become the Kingdom of Kush. The center or capital of this kingdom would still be in Napata. But later it would be relocated in Meroe.

    The term Kush was first used by the Egyptians (the Egyptians spoke an African/Asiatic or Hamitc/Semetic language) for Nubia. Kush or Cush means “black” and appears in the Bible as the first son of Ham in Genesis 10: 6 and 1st Chronicles 1: 8. Kush is also the father of Nimrod in Genesis 10: 8 and 1st Chronicles 1: 10. Moses marries a Kushite woman in Numbers 12: 1. In Psalms 7, Davis sings to the Lord concerning a Kushite who is a Benjamite. In Jeremiah 13: 23, Kush is referred to having dark or black skin. The Septuagint (Torah translation into Greek) refers to Kush as Aethopia or Ethiopia, the land of burnt faces. The Kushites occupied the land on both sides (Eastern and Western) of the Red Sea.

    It was during this time of the New Kingdom (1550 BCE-1070 BEC) of Egypt that would usher in the greatest period of Egyptian power, culture, and influence. It would give rise to the Egyptian 18th, 19th, and 20th, dynasties with such Pharaohs and leaders as Ahmose I, Hatsheput, Thutmose III, Amenhotep III, Akhenaten, Tutankhamun (King Tut), Ramesses I, Seti I, Ramesses II, and Ramesses III. Nubia would be under their rule and would adopt Egyptian religion and culture. It would also become an important economic, spiritual, and political province to Egypt. The Egyptians would use Nubians as slaves for the extraction gold and other minerals, as well as incense and precious stones. Nubia would become the center of gold production in the Middle East. However, despite Egyptian rule and assimilation, they would maintain many aspects of their own culture and worship Egyptian deities in a more Nubia aspect (similar to African Americans worship of Christianity). Egyptian art distinguished the Nubian by their different dress, appearance, and even method of transportation.

    The Nubians would be ruled by Kushite Viceroys of Egypt who were appointed by and reported to the Pharaoh. Royal families of both Egyptian and Kushite often intermarried. Many believe that the descendants of these viceroys would later become the kings and pharaohs of the 25th dynasty known as the Kushite kings or pharaohs of Egypt.

    The Kingdom of Kush would become an important spiritual center of Egypt. It would be the place where the Egyptian god Amun would live. It also would be the site of the most famous landmark in the area and the second holiest place in Egyptian worship, the mountain of Jebel Barkal. To travelers it would be a landmark to show them to the safest place to the crossing of the Nile. To the Egyptians and Kushites it would mark the southernmost boundary of the Egyptian empire and the living quarters of the god Amun.

    At the southern end of the mountain a narrow piece is partially separated from the mountain. On this strip is the image of the snake or rearing cobra which represents the goddess Uraeuses (patroness of the Nile Delta and protector of Lower Egypt). It symbolizes sovereignty, royalty, deity, and divine authority. The cobra wears a sun-disk on its head. The sun-disk represents Amun as the chief deity and created of all things represented by the sun, as was Ra in whom the Egyptian would combine the two as one Amun-Ra. You can also see the god Amun wearing a crown with his wife Mut (mother of all things) in the front of the mountain. At the base of the mountain were several temples with the two most important ones dedicated to Amun and his with Mut.

    The Kushites buried their dead in burial mounds including their kings. Later, they would adopt the Egyptians style for burying their kings and other royalty in pyramids. The Kushites rulers would later take the names of some of the Egyptian gods as their own.

    However, things would begin to unravel in great New Kingdom of Egypt. Beginning at the latter part of the 10th century BCE, the Assyrians in the North would begin to become a major power. It would from 911 BCE - 605 BCE be the most powerful empire in the world ruling and controlling Southeastern Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Southwestern Iran, Cyprus, Eastern Islands of Greece, South Caucasus, Northern and Northeastern parts of the Arabian Peninsula, Egypt, Libya, Lebanon, Israel, and Nubia.

    In 946 BCE, Shoshenq I a Meshwesh (an ancient Libyan tribe of Berber origin who were dark skinned or black) of Libya would establish the 22nd and 23rd dynasty of Pharaohs in Egypt. In the Bible he is referred to as Shishaq (1st Kings 11: 40, 14: 25, and 2nd Chronicles 12: 2 – 9). They would also control lower Nubia by putting family members in key positions. However, after 200 years, their rule would come to an end. It would be followed by a brief 24th dynasty.

    Due to political fighting among the ruling class of pharaohs, the government became unstable. Also the Nubians in the South were gathering ready to take control of their own destiny as well as that of Egypt. A strong Nubian king would emerge that would accomplish this feat.





    Last edited by the moor; 10-28-2020 at 04:00 PM.

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    Nubian Kushite Empire 755 - 656 BCE

    nubian kushite empire 700 BCE.jpg


    Nubian Kushite 25th dynasty Pharaoh Shebitku

    Shabatka_portrait,_Aswan_Nubian black pharaoh.jpg


    Nubian Kushite 25th dynasty Pharaoh Shabaka

    shabaka.jpg


    Nubian Kushite 25th dynasty Pharaoh Taharqa

    Taharaq.jpg


    Nubian Kushite 25th dynasty Pharaoh Tantamani

    tantamani.jpg



    Nubian Kushite Kings of Egypt’s 25th Dynasty (755 – 656 BCE)


    Nubian Kushite Kings or Pharaohs ruled Egypt’s during its 25th dynasty. Some consider them the “Black Pharaohs” of Egypt. However, they were not the first and only dark skinned or black pharaohs of Egypt. There were other pharaohs who ruled earlier and even later whose skin was dark or black. These pharaohs considered themselves Egyptians and not Nubians. In fact, they rather despised the Nubians. But further study of Egyptian pharaohs will prove that the Nubian Kushite Kings weren’t the only black pharaohs of Egypt.

    Due the the political instability and infighting among the ruling elite of Egypt a weaken Egypt would be the result. This would leave Egypt vulnerable to attacks from outside forces. After nearly 500 years of Egyptian domination, the Kingdom of Kush was ready to take advantage of Egypt’s vulnerability.

    Occupying the southernmost part of the Egyptian empire which extended into present day northern Sudan, Nubia had become united under a Kushite leader named Alara. Alara who is considered the founder of the 25th dynasty of Kushite kings of Egypt came from the royal dynasty in Napata. He was a Kushite prince of Nubia. Under his leadership, Nubia would be unified from Meroe to the third cataract. He would make Napata the religious center of Nubia. However, he never was a 25th dynasty king himself, because he never controlled any land that was considered Egyptian.

    Alara was succeeded by Kashta. He is thought to be the brother of Alara. Both Alara and Kashta are thought to have married their sisters (this was not uncommon among Egyptian royalty to solidify their power and Nubia copied many ways and aspects of Egyptian culture). But there is no clear evidence to substantiate these claims. Kashta would rule out of Napata and take control of Upper Egypt by installing his daughter Amenirdis I in Thebes as wife (surrogate), high priestess, and the Divine Adoratrice of Amun. He would be the first Nubian or Kushite king to rule over Egyptian territory and thus is considered the 1st king of the 25 dynasty of Pharaohs. However, under him the Nubians between the 3rd and 4th cataracts would be Egyptianized (adopt Egyptian culture).

    Kashta would be succeeded by Piye aka Pankhy or Piankhi. He was the son of Kashta and his wife Pebatjma. Piye like Kashta would rule from Napata. He was a fervent worshiper of the god Amun. He would also take advantage of the infighting between Egyptian rulers and expand Nubian power and control beyond Upper Egypt and Thebes. Piye formed a Nubia army to stop the advancing Egyptian Pharaoh Tefnakht into Upper Egypt and invaded Middle and Lower Egypt. He would view his actions as a Holy War and commanded his soldiers to cleanse themselves ritually before going into battle. He himself offered sacrifices to the god Amun.

    Piye advanced northward into Lower Egypt capturing several Egyptian cities among them Khememu, more known as Hermpolis, (named by Greeks after their god Hermes which they associated with the Egyptian god Thoth in which both operated in the similar capacities) and Memphis. He defeated the fractured four ruling kings of Lower Egypt including Tefnakht with all acknowledging his rule over them and all paying homage to him personally, except for Tefnakht. Piye would return to Nubia never to return to Lower Egypt again. He would establish one of the rulers as a Nubian vassal king. However, the other rulers were allowed to do whatever they wanted without Piye’s oversight.

    Piye’s successor was his son Shebitku. He was married to a daughter of Piye. Shebitku pretty much followed in his father’s footsteps. But unlike his father, he was more Egyptian and worshiped Egyptian deities. He did little to solidify his hold over Lower Egypt. But his successor would be different.

    Shabaka succeeded Shebitku. His father was Kashta. Shabaka would solidify Nubian control over all of Egypt including Lower Egypt. He even executed the Egyptian King of Sais by burning him alive for resisting his rule. Shabaka would make Thebes and later Memphis the capital of his kingdom. He was a builder and built a pink granite statue of himself wearing the twin crowns of Egypt (signifying control over Lower and Upper Egypt) at Karnak. He succeeded in keeping Egypt free from invaders from the outside, especially the Neo-Assyrian Empire of Sargon II (Sargon II appears in Isaiah 20: 1-6 as conqueror of Samaria and the Northern Kingdom or the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel and would also defeat their Egyptian/Kushite allies who were helping them, deporting the Egyptian captives, Kushite exiles, and the people of the Samaria and the Northern Kingdom to all parts of the Neo-Assyrian Empire). Shabaka would also grant asylum to King Yamanni of Ashdod (Isaiah 20: 1) after the latter fled to Egypt following the suppression of his revolt against the Assyrians. But only to have him returned to Assyria due to the friendly relations he had with Assyria. However, that friendship wouldn’t last.

    Shabaka would be succeeded by Taharqa. Taharqa was the son Piye and the cousin of Sheitku. Because of the successful campaigns of Piye and Shabaka into Lower Egypt, he would have a prosperous reign. However, many believe that he ousted Shabaka from power and may have had him killed.

    Under Taharqa’s rule in the capital Memphis, Egypt and Nubia would undergo a period of renewed revival. The empire thrived due particularly to a large Nile river flood, which provided an abundance of crops. He also provided the central government with the intellectual and material resources to operate more efficiently. He gave large amounts of gold to the Temple of Amun at Kawa. Taharqa restored Egypt culturally in the arts, religion, and architectural building to their Old, Middle, and New Kingdom forms. The central features of Theban theology were merged with Egyptian Middle and New Kingdom imperial ideology. The god Amun who was worshiped in Upper Egypt and Nubian was once again merged with Ra, who was worshiped in Lower Egypt, resulting in Amun-Ra. This also resulted in the unification of both Upper and Lower Egypt under Kushite or Nubian rule.

    Taharqa restored existing temples and built new ones. He made impressive additions to the Temple at Karnak, new Temple at Kawa, and Temples at Jebel Barkal. He continued to expand on the previous Kushite kings in developing Jebel Barkal into a complex of sanctuaries centered around the Great Temple of Amun. He also created Temple Towns which centers of government, production, and redistribution. Taharqa would also begin the rebuilding of pyramids with his being the largest in the Nubian region of Nuri.

    However, Taharqa would also face challenges with the biggest being the Assyrians. The Assyrians were threatening the region. Taharqa made allegiances with the Phoenicians and the Philistines. He also came to the aid of Judah’s King Hezekiah (Taharqa is known in the Bible as Tirhakah in 2nd Kings 19: 1-6 and Isaiah 37: 9) during the Assyrian King’s Sennacherib siege of Jerusalem. During the night the Assyrian army was nearly destroyed. Many believe in the Bible description as an act of God, as in the form of a disease. Greek historian Herodotus states (as divine intervention) from Egyptian sources that the Assyrian army was sleeping in a mice field and during the night the mice gnawed their equipment making them unable to defend themselves against Taharqa forces. Whatever the case, Sennacherib returned to Assyria where he was murdered by his sons for the destruction of rebellious Babylon to his rule, a city sacred to all Mesopotamians including the Assyrians.

    King Esarhaddon succeeded Sennacherib as the Assyrian king. He invaded Palestine (Judah/Israel) and took a town loyal to Egypt. After destroying Sidon and forcing Tyre to pay tribute, he invaded Egypt. However, he would meet stiff resistance. Taharqa and his army defeated the Assyrian outright. Many have concluded that it was one of Assyria’s worse defeats. Taharaq had brought in reserved troops from Nubia or Kush.

    Taharaq still had sway over the region which included Philistine, Judah/Israel, Lebanon (Phoenicia). This is evident by the allegiances formed with him by Tyre and Ashkelon. However, Esarhaddon would invade Lower Egypt defeating Taharaq and capturing the city of Memphis, imposing tribute and then withdrawing. In the meantime, Taharaq had fled to the south but his royal family including wives and royal court were captured and held as hostages in Assyria.

    King Esarhaddon for a third time would lead his army into Egypt. However, he would die and the command passed to his son Ashurbanipal. Ashurbanipal and the Assyrian army again defeated Taharaq and advanced far south as Thebes. However, direct Assyrian control was never established because the people rebelled against his rule which was inspired by Taharaq. Ashurbanipal would capture and deport the leaders to the Assyrian capital of Nineveh while executing many of the population of the cities that had rebelled. He then would appoint an Egyptian vassal king Necho I who had been king of the Egyptian city of Sais. Necho I would pardon Ashurbanipal and in return be awarded the capital city of Memphis.

    Taharaq would be succeeded by Tantamani. He was the son of Shabaka and the nephew of Taharaq. After Ashurbanipal had left Egypt leaving Necho I in charge, Tantamani immediately attacked Lower Egypt recapturing all the territory of Lower Egypt including the capital Memphis. During the battle Necho I was killed. This would lead to Ashurbanipal bringing with him a full force to once again invade Lower Egypt. He also had help from Necho I son Psamtik I (vassal of Assyria) who brought with him mercenaries from southwestern Turkey, the Carians (2nd Kings 11: 4). Tantamani and the Assyrian forces fought fierce pitched battles in north Memphis. But Tantamani would be defeated and fled to Upper Egypt.

    Ashurbanipal would pursue Tantamani and 40 days later ended up in Thebes. Ashurbanipal would sack Thebes looting and taking large quantities of gold, silver, precious stones, clothes, horses, important men and women, exotic animals, as well as two large obelisks weight 75 tons. The sack of Thebes would be a momentous event that would reverberate throughout the Ancient Near East. It is recorded in the Bible in Nahum 3: 8-11.

    Tantamani having fled to Nubia was still regarded as king in Upper Egypt. However, his influence would end when Psamtik I with a navy quietly enter Thebes and took control peacefully. He would reunite all of Egypt under Egyptian rule and thus put an end to the 25th dynasty of Nubian Kushite rule over Egypt.





    In this last video the chronological succession of kings places Shabaka the predecessor of Shebitku. However, new research now places Shebitku the predecessor of Shabaka in which I have included in this post.

    Although the Manethonic and classical traditions maintain that it was Shabaka's invasion which brought Egypt under Kushite rule, the most recent archaeological evidence shows that Shabaka ruled Egypt after Shebitku and not before, as previously thought. The confusion may stem from Shabaka's accession via Kushite collateral succession versus Egyptian patrilinear succession...




    Last edited by the moor; 09-15-2020 at 04:07 PM.

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    Video One

    Last edited by the moor; 11-28-2020 at 02:18 PM.

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    Pharaoh Taharqa with two cobras representing his rule over both Lower and Upper Egypt

    king taharqa in bible.jpg


    Sphinx of Taharqa

    SphinxOfTaharqa as in bible.jpg


    Pharaoh Taharqa is probably one of the better known Nubian Kushite Kings of the Egyptian 25th dynasty. He greatly improved culturally Egyptian society. Taharqa built temples and monuments to the god Amun and other Egyptian deities. He improved trade with other countries and vastly improved the Egyptian economy. He also had one of the greatest armies in the world which defeated the mighty and powerful Assyrian Empire before finally falling to them. Taharga is known as Tirhakah in the Bible (2nd Kings 19:1-6 and Isaiah 37:9) and was an ally of Judah and Jerusalem whom he helped in fighting the Assyrians.

    Last edited by the moor; 10-10-2020 at 12:54 AM.

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    Shepenupet I at the Temple of Karnak

    shepenukpet I at Karnak.jpg


    Amenirdis I

    Amenirdis I daughter of Kashta.jpg


    Amenirdis I

    amenirdis I.jpg


    Shepenupet II

    Shepenupet II daughter of Piye.jpg


    Shepenupet II at the Temple of Ramesees

    Shepenupet II at temple of Ramasees.jpg



    The Divine Adoratrice of Amun


    Nubian women had more equality, rights, and power than any other women of the ancient world. The Divine Adoratrice of Amun was the second wife or surrogate wife of the Egyptian deity Amun and served as the high priestess to this deity. Whoever held this titled wielded great power and influence. She helped in the transition of power from one pharaoh to another and assisted the daughter of the new pharaoh in taking her position (the daughter of each new pharaoh would take the title). The Divine Adoratrice ruled over the extensive temple duties and domains, controlling a significant part of the Egyptian economy.

    The Divine Adoratrice of Amun but known as The God’s Wife of Amun to the Egyptians, originated during the reign of Queen or Pharaoh Hatshepsut (dark skinned Egyptian, not Nubian queen or pharaoh of Egypt) as the daughter of the high priest of Amun and was an important office while the capital of Egypt was located in Thebes. However, the title would go into decline but would be revived during the 20th dynasty of the reign of Rameses VI’s (1145 – 1137 BCE) when his daughter Iset held the title. She would become the first to hold this office who practiced celibacy and would adopt the daughter of the next pharaoh to take her place at the end of his reign. This tradition would be continued by the next pharaoh as each pharaoh’s daughter would adopt the daughter of the new pharaoh for the title and position. Maintaining celibacy was mandatory as the God’s Wife of Amun.

    In Nubia and during the Nubian Pharaohs rule of Egypt during the 25th dynasty, The God’s Wife of Amnu became known as The Divine Adoratrice of Amun. Shepenupet I would be the first Nubian to hold this title, unlike God’s Wife of Amun which refers to Mut or is equated to Mut, she was seen as separate. She was the daughter of Pharaoh Osorkon III. She would become the first to have royal titles to her position, “Lord of Two Lands” and “Lord of Appearances.” She would also become one of the most powerful persons in the Egypt. Shepenupet I had great political influence and pharaohs often consulted with her. When the Nubian King Kashta of the 25th dynasty became pharaoh, Shepenupet I adopted his daughter Amenirdis I to succeed her.

    This trend of each succeeding Nubian pharaoh’s daughter becoming The Divine Adoratrice of Amun would continue throughout the 25th dynasty. It wasn’t until the Egyptian Pharaoh Psamtik I of Lower Egypt had ended the Nubian 25th dynasty rule of Egypt that the current Divine Adoratrice of Amun, Amenirds II adopted his daughter Nitocris I as The Divine Adoratrice of Amun that the Nubian line would end.

    Even though both Upper and Lower Egypt would use The Divine Adoratrice of Amun for political purposes to project their power and influence over the other, the center of power of The Divine Adoratrice of Amun would be the area around Thebes in Upper Egypt.


    Divine Adoratrice of Amun
    Name Comments Dates

    Shepenupet I
    Daughter of Osorkon III
    754 – 714 BCE

    Amenirdis I
    Daughter of Kashta, sister of Piye
    740 – 720 BCE

    Shepenupet II
    Daughter of Piye, sister of Taharqa
    710 – 650 BCE

    Amenirdis II
    Daughter of Taharqa 670 – 640 BCE

    Nitocris I
    Daughter of Psamtik I
    656 – 586 BCE

    Ankhnesneferibre
    Daughter of Psamtik II, great-niece of Nitocris I
    595 – c.560 BCE

    Nitocris II
    Daughter of Amasis II; office was abolished in 525 due to the Persian conquest c.560 – 525 BCE





 

 

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