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  1. #331
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    Hand Jive Dance


    The Hand Jive Dance is similar to Juba Pattin and was probably influenced by it. It consists of some of same moves as Juba Pattin with some additional moves added. It involves hand clapping, thigh slapping, wrist crossing, fist pounding, and hitch hike moves. Occasionally, the feet and heel are touched with the hands. It is danced to the music of the Juba Dance Hambone with the same syncopated beats performed by Bo Diddley.

    The dance originated in Soho, London in England by teenagers at The Cat’s Whiskers coffee bar. The place was too crowded to dance, so the kids just stood around and moved their hands to the music while the band, Leon Bell and the Bell Cats played the music to go along with their hand movements. Thus, the hand jive was born.

    Johnny Otis made the hand jive popular in the U.S. with his hit song titled “Willie and the Hand Jive.




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  3. #332
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    Who Are You?

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  5. #333
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    [SIZE=3]Step Dance


    The” Step Dance” or “Step Dancing” is a traditional African American form of dance that has its roots in West Africa and brought to America by slaves. It contains elements of Ring Shout stomping, Juba Dance which includes Juba Pattin, the Hambone, and tap. It also has hand jive movements as well. The call and response that is so familiar to Africa is also present. Step dancing is part of the African American sororities and fraternities “Greek Shows” and is performed with much pride among each sorority and fraternity in competition with one another.


    All the African American sororities and fraternities are not represented in this video. However, it does show the influence of the African American culture on step dancing. Oh, btw, the Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity did a great job but it just isn't the same without that cane.

    Last edited by the moor; 10-19-2020 at 09:20 PM.

  6. #334
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    slave perfoming a stick dance on south carolina plantation.jpg

    The Berry Brothers

    berry brothers.jpg


    Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity

    kappa alpha psi.jpg



    Stick Dancing


    Stick Dancing was a dance developed by African American and Caribbean slaves on the Southern plantations in America and the plantations in the Caribbean and Brazil (martial arts called capoeira). However, it was really a military type drill in disguise of a dance in which a stick was used to imitate a weapon. The slaves would gather around to sing (in a call and response) and clap as the dancer or dancers would perform their various moves. When the plantation owners saw them dancing to the singing and clapping they thought it was just the slaves having fun, not knowing that the slaves were practicing a fighting technique in case of a slave revolt.

    Stick dancing became a standard part of minstrel shows during the latter part of the 1800s. It was perform by white actors in black face and later black actors also in black face. In the minstrel shows a cane was used instead of a stick. To add humor, the performer would come lazily on the stage dressed as an elderly black man with a cane and then suddenly start performing energetically acrobatic capoeira type moves.

    During the early 1930s and 1940s, the African American tap dancing group The Berry Brothers often used a cane in their tap dancing routines. The African American fraternity Kappa Alpha Psi also uses a cane in their step dancing routines.





    Last edited by the moor; 10-11-2020 at 01:21 PM.

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  8. #335
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    Hitch-Hike Dance


    One of the moves of the hand jive dance was the hitch-hike. However, the hike-hike would become a very popular dance of its own during the early to middle 1960s. It would be made famous by rhythm and blues soul singer Marvin Gaye.

    The dance is easy to do and was based on a simple hitchhiking gesture of moving a stuck-out thumb back and forth or from left to right side-ways. The classic Motown gesture is three times right thumb to the right shoulder, clap hands, three times left thumb to the left shoulder, clap hands. All this is accompanied by a shimmy body shaking movement of left forward and backwards and right forward and backwards. Often a movement of the hips is involved with an occasional step forward or backwards.

    Last edited by the moor; 10-19-2020 at 11:57 AM.

  9. #336
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    shimmy dance.jpg



    The Shimmy Dance


    Just like the hand jive and the hitch-hike, the shimmy was a dance in which the movement of the body was above the waist, but in most cases there was also hip movement as well. The dance first appeared in the 1910s. It seems like everyone wanted to claim to be the originator of it. Most give credit to Gilda Gray, a Polish immigrant who brought the dance to the attention of the national public in 1919, who stated that she learned it from watching Native Americans who called the dance the "Shimmy Shiwa." Bee Palmer, a Ziegfeld Follies dancer also danced the shimmy.

    Others state that the dance came to America by way of Middle Eastern Belly Dancers during the 1893 World’s Fair. The shaking of the upper torso with the arms held out is definitely a part of belly dancing. However, the origin was well be before that.

    The Shimmy was introduced to America with the shipping of Nigerian slaves. It originated from the Nigerian ritual dance “Shika” and a Haitian voodoo dance. It is characterized by the fast shaking of the hips and shoulders. In 1900, the dance was known as “Shake and Quiver.” The dance became popular because it was featured in the 1904 movie, “Princess Rajah." Later it would be modified with the body being held still but a shaking of the shoulders moving back and forth alternating left and then right. The arms are slightly bent at the elbows with a shaking of the hips. Famed actresses Mae West attributed the dance to African Americans when she first saw it being danced in a mixed race night club in Chicago, where dancers just stood in one place and shook their shoulders, upper torso, breast, and hips. West stated, “We thought it was funny and were terrible amused by it. But there was a naked, aching sensual agony about it too.”

    Throughout the 1920s, flappers would perform the shimmy while dancing other dances such as the fox trot. However, because it would be deemed to sexually provocative, it was banned in many societal night clubs. However, it would be a very popular dance among African Americans and the dance of the Harlem Renaissance.

    Songs such as “I Wish I Could Shimmy Like My Sister Kate” recorded in 1919 was very popular and brought national attention to the dance. Other songs as well about the shimmy also became popular. In 1963, the rhythm and blues soul singing group Little Anthony and the Imperials recorded the song, “Shimmy, Shimmy Ko-Ko Bop.” The shimmy would also spawn other dances, one in particular would be the “Camel Walk” and would remain the popular dance among African American until the “Black Bottom.”


    The Shimmy Dance from the 1904 movie Princess Rajah




    The popular Shimmy Dance of the 1920s. First they give the basics and then add to it their own rhythmic moves.




    One of the most popular song of the 1920s. It brought the shimmy to national attention.




    Little Anthony and the Imperials

    Last edited by the moor; 10-23-2020 at 12:04 PM.

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  11. #337
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    black bottom.jpg


    The Black Bottom Dance

    The black bottom was a popular dance midway during the 1920s aka the “Roaring 2Os” and the “Jazz Age.” It was the craze among the “flappers” and was danced either solo, couples or groups.

    The dance originated among African Americans in the first decade of the 20th century in the semirural and urban South. It first appeared in New Orleans. Famed jazz pianist Jelly Roll Morton wrote the first tune for the dance titled “Black Bottom Stomp.” It referred to the Black Bottom (African American) section of Detroit. Later African American dancer and choreographer Billy Pierce introduced the dance steps while working in collaboration with another African American choreographer Buddy Bradley.

    However, white America quickly caught on to the tune and dance and began to copy from it. White dancers Ann Pennington and Tom Patricola would quickly introduced, with the help of Bradley, the dance to the American public in the musical comedy “George White’s Scandals of 1926,” after seeing it performed in the 1924 Harlem Stage Show Dinaah. It would become a national craze.

    In 1926, Ray Henderson, Buddy DeSylva, and Lew Brown would compose a different arrangement with lyrics. This arrangement would contains lyrics of an ethnic nature (a touch of the minstrels) using words which referred to African Americans as "darkies," high yellers," and "high brown." It would be recorded by singer Ann Henshaw and become a national hit.

    Oh, the black bottom of the Swanee river
    Sometimes like to shake and shiveer,
    But it makes the darkies feel like struttin' around, I watchin'!
    They found a way to imitate it;
    I know they exaggerate it,
    But I wish that you could see the dance that they found!
    Every high brown gal and her bon-bon buddy
    Go down where the tracks are muddy
    To do a step that soon will be renowned!

    They call it black bottom, a new twister,
    Sure got 'em, oh sister!
    They clap their hands and do a raggedy trot, it's hot!
    Old fellows with lumbago,
    With high yellers, away they go!
    They jump right in and give it all that they've got!

    They say that when the river bottom covered with ooze,
    Start in to squirm,
    Couples dance, here's the movement they use,
    Just like a worm!

    Black bottom,
    A new rhythm,
    When you spot 'em,
    You go with 'em!
    And do that black black bottom all the day long!

    They say that when the river bottom covered with ooze,
    Start in to squirm,
    Couples dance, here's the movement they use,
    Just like a worm!

    Black bottom,
    A new rhythm,
    When you spot 'em,
    You go with 'em!
    And do that black black bottom all the day long,
    All day long, long, all day long!


    As time progressed, dancers would add modifications to the dance such as tapping their butts and bumping them into one another. There would also be variations of other dances included such as the Charleston.

    Later, Ma Rainey would do a blues version of the song and dance. And hers would be entirely different.





    1920s jazz era lyrics. Note "darkie" is in the third line.







    Roaring 20s flappers Black Bottom Dance




    Last edited by the moor; 11-28-2020 at 02:11 PM.

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  13. #338
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    esie mansah 1.jpg


    esie mansah.jpg


    esie mansah 5.jpg


    esie mansah 4.jpg


    ESIE_MENSAH 2.jpg


    Esie Mansah: Choreographer, Dancer, Teacher, Model, Director, and the Creator of Afrofusion


    Esie Mansah is an African Ghanaian Canadian choreographer, dancer, teacher, director, and model. She was raised in Toronto, Canada. She became involved in dancing at an early age because her parents wanted her to know about her Ghanaian heritage. She is of the Ewe Tribe and with her parents and other members of the tribe, a part of the Ewe Canadian Cultural Organization of Ontario.

    Esie would watch and learn the traditional dances of her culture and soon began to love it. She would also watch dance videos of various dances studying and educating herself on the art of dancing. But it wouldn’t until after her third year at McMaster’s University for Women and Cultural Studies that she decided that she was going to make dancing her career or at least give it a good try.

    She soon enrolled in the George Brown’s commercial dance program, where she was able to learn other dance styles that she wasn’t familiar with, such as ballet, jazz, hip-hop, musical theatre and acting as well as singing. Through contacts and connections, she was able to land a job as a commercial dancer. She did backup dances in music videos, going on tour with Divine Brown and opening for the Backstreet Boys.

    She knew she had what it took to be a good dancer, however, wanting for someone to call you to say that you’re good enough or that you are the right fit was exasperating. There were even times that her dark shade (skin color) was not deem appropriate. But it wouldn’t be until she went to China that she would have the opportunity to show off her dancing skills and gain valuable insight into how dancers, faced with such obstacles can overcome them to prove themselves and more forward.

    Upon her return from China, Esie was recruited by a friend who was the owner of an African Dance company. She was able to join their last performance and immediately another relationship began to emerge. She would have an off and on five-year relationship with the company that would enable her to reconnect to her cultural dancing roots and spirit, as just not only dancing for dancing sake. Esie would be able to dance in the African spirituality of herself, void of the physical presence, that was and is very essential to her. She no longer just wanted to do commercial dance and wasn’t satisfied with just African traditional dance. She would combine the two in the creation of “Afrofusion.”

    Esie often felt that African people were mistaken for Jamaicans, whom she thought was taking away from the accomplishments of Africans from Africa. Because the dance industry as it relates to Africans is very Caribbean focused and there were not a lot of African dancers or choreographers in the business. Afrofusion allowed her bridge the gap and bring Africans more into the foreground. She wanted to do something that represented her, her culture, and her community in a different way.

    While beginning this new path, she found inspiration from others such as Debbie Allen, Michael Jackson, Oprah Winfrey, Maya Angelou, Sidney Poitier, and Lauryn Hill. She began of understand herself as an artist from a spiritual standpoint. She listened to other who had made it and learned from their struggles and was comforted to known that they had faced the same obstacles as she was facing. It was motivating and pushed her forward.

    Eise encourages all aspiring dancers to “Stay true to yourself, honor you and don’t pay attention to the noise, sometimes it distracts for no reason, listening to the voice inside of you knowing the path could take twice as long when you get there it’s going to be twice as gratifying.”





    Afrofusion




    Excepts from the dance theatre play Shades.




    Esie Mansah group performing at halftime during a Toronto Raptor game.




    Afroburlesque




    Esie Mansah is also shown in the posts "How to Dance the Shimmy" and "How to Dance the Black Bottom" on this page.


    Last edited by the moor; 12-27-2020 at 01:36 PM.

  14. #339
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    Part 1


    The Virginia Minstrels

    minstreal virginia 1843.jpg


    minstrel 2.jpg


    minstrel show.jpg


    Modern Day Minstrel, 1970s England

    minstrel 1.jpg


    Jim Crow

    jimcrow.jpg


    The Minstrel Show: A Stereotypical Degradation of African Americans in American Acting


    The term minstrel was a term that applied to white traveling singing groups. But later, it would be applied to mean black-faced performances. Fredrick Douglass described minstrel shows as “the filthy scum of white society, who have stolen from us a complexion denied them by nature, in which to make money, and pander to the corrupt taste of their white fellow citizens.” The Minstrel shows were acts where white actors in black-faced make-up portrayed African Americans in demeaning stereotypical roles as being dim-witted, lazy, buffoonish, superstitious, and happy-go-lucky to the amusement of predominately white audiences. They called themselves Ethiopian delineators.

    They got their beginning in the early 1820s in usually one-man act or in small teams (2-3) in comedy routines performed in theatre during intermission, in circuses, and in taverns in the less respectable areas on town, such as Lower Broadway and the Bowery of New York City. By the 1830s, their popularity had grown. However, it would be Thomas Dartmouth Rice (Daddy Rice) who would bring the minstrel to a new level of prominence. In 1828, he would develop an African American character whom he stated had observed in Louisville, Kentucky who danced a dance called “Jump Jim Crow.” He took this character on the minstrel stage dressed in rags and using African American vernacular speech. Within five years, his character was a major minstrel act attraction. While there were African American actors and actresses in more dignified roles in the all-African American theater as the African Grove Theatre and later the African Theater in New York City, fear of competition by white theaters and complaints by white neighbors resulted in it being closed and later burned down.

    An economic depression would hit the nation during the late 1830s. Theater performances declined. However, musical concerts would not be affected as much. They were still able to make a profit. It is in this situation that the present-day minstrel “show” was born.

    In 1843, four black-faced performers led by Dan Emmett combined to stage a concert at the New York Bowery Amphitheatre. They called themselves the “Virginia Minstrels.” The show had little structure. The four sat in a semicircle, played songs, and traded wisecracks and jokes. All would play an instrument with one on the banjo, one on the fiddle, one on the tambourine, and one on the bones or bone castanets. One would give a stump speech (forerunner to the present-day stand-up comic) in African American dialect. They ended the show with a lively plantation (Negro songs with the banjo an African string instrument) song. They would make the term minstrel and minstrel shows synonymous with blackface performances. By applying it to blackface performances, they were making a pitch to attract a new more sophisticated white middle-class audience. To appeal to the more sophisticated audiences, the Virginia minstrel had to tone down its bawdy offensive vulgar and sexually suggestive language that was often associated with minstrels.

    In 1845, another minstrel show called the Ethiopian Serenaders purged its show of low humor and surpassed the Virginia Minstrels in popularity. They even dropped the plantation songs of African Americans in exchanged for songs with a sentimental, romantic nature, and with some of the more popular opera genre. Songs such as “Buffalo Gal” and “Old Dan Tucker,” would become standard American songs. In 1848, they also employed the first African American performer William Henry Lane, aka, Master Juba. However, they hid his identity as an African American and passed him as another white man in blackface.

    Shorty afterwards, Edwin Pearce Christy founded the Christy Minstrels combining the refine singing of the Ethiopian Serenaders, as well as including the composer Stephen F. Foster, with the Virginia Minstrel bawdy brand of humor. Christy’s company established the three-act format in which minstrel shows would be performed for the next thirty years. This change to a more respectable performance prompted theater owners to enforce new rules to make playhouses calmer and quieter.

    The Christy Minstrels would also establish the basic structure of the minstrel show. A crowd gathering parade to the theatre would often precede the performance. The show was divided into three major parts. During the first part, the entire troupe would dance onto the stage to a popular song. The interlocutor or Master of Ceremonies (MC) would tell the troupe to take their places, then they all sat in a semicircle. The mannerable and dignified interlocutor sat in the middle. He was sophisticated and towered over all the other with his intellect. Characters such as Mr. Bones or “Brudder” Bones (Bones and Bones Castanets) and Mr. Tambo or “Brudder” (Tambourine) sat at the ends and were known as endmen or cornermen. The endmen would exchange jokes and perform a variety of humorous songs. They were ignorant and poorly spoken, being conned, electrocuted, and often run over in various sketches. They happily shared their stupidity and were very musical and usually unable to sit still. They moved their bodies wildly while singing. Over time the first act would include maudlin acts (sympathetic drunk) that were not always in dialect. One minstrel, usually a tenor, specialized in this part and often became a celebrity, especially the women (women didn’t perform in minstrels until towards the end the 19th century). An upbeat plantation song and dance ended the first act, however, later it would end in a walkaround including dances such as the “cakewalk.”

    The second act was characterized with more variety performances. In fact, it was entertainment in preparation for the set of the third act behind the curtain. Performers danced, played instruments, did acrobats, and demonstrated other amusing talents. But the highlight of the act would be the “stump speech.” It was an one man act usually performed by an endman that made a long oratory about anything from nonsense to science, society or politics. He portrayed a dim-witted character who tried to speak eloquently, only to deliver countless mispronunciations, jokes, and unintentional puns. The speaker would move around like a clown sometimes standing on his head and almost always falling off his stump at some point during his speech. While performing in blackface, the stump speaker could deliver stinging social criticism without offending the audience because of the inability of African Americans to understand them.

    The third act or afterpiece was often a skit of a Southern plantation which usually included song and dance numbers. It also featured a Sambo and Mammy type character in slapstick comedy. The emphasis was on the happy slave life on the plantation, a viewpoint that would mislead several whites, especially in the North to believe. However, sometimes antislavery situation would occur subtly as slaves being sold or separated from family, runaways, and an occasional slave rebellion. A few stories showed the black trickster getting the best of the master. At the very end of the third act, slapstick humor in the form of cream pies being thrown to the face, inflated bladders to imitated the passing of flatulence, and onstage fireworks brought the minstrel show to its conclusion.


    The Stump Speech







    A picture is worth a thousand words.

    Last edited by the moor; 01-28-2021 at 11:26 AM.

  15. #340
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    Part 2


    Uncle Tom

    UncleTom.jpg


    The Mammy or Aunt Jemima

    mammy.jpg


    The Pickaninny

    pickaninny.jpg


    The Yellar gal or mulatto

    mulatto.jpg


    The Zip Coon or Dandy

    zip coon.jpg


    The mammy or old auntie (Aunt Jemima) was the counterpart to old uncle. She was also loveable. She was strong willed and a devoted mother. She often carried much sway over the master.

    The “yaller” gal or wench was a mulatto with the facial feature of a white woman. She was perceived to be sexually promiscuous and attractively exotic. Her beauty and flirtatiousness made her a common target for male characters, although she usually was capricious and elusive. She became more prominent after the Civil War.

    The Pickaninny character was depicted as having bulging eyes, unkempt hair, red lips and wide mouths into which they stuffed huge slices of watermelon.

    The dandy or “Zip Coon” was often appeared in the afterpiece. He was a Northern free black who tried to live about his means by imitating white upper-class speech and dress, usually to not effect. Their clothing was a humorous imitation of upper-class dress with coats with tails and paddle shoulders, white gloves, monocles, fake mustaches, and overly flashy watch chains. They spent their time primping and preening, going to parties, dancing and strutting, and wooing women.

    The black soldier became another character during and after the Civil War. He was a combination of the slave and the Zip Coon. Though admired for being in the war, he stumbled through his drills and though his uniform made him equal to a white soldier. He was better a retreating than fighting and preferred to party and any serious pursuit.

    The Buck was another character who was big, proud, and often imitating. He also like to chase the women.

    Finally, the character Jim Crow, in which the minstrel gained it wide popularity, was a field slave. He was nimble and irreverently witty who though he could get the best on anyone. However, it was usually him who was bested. He was dressed in ragged clothes, wore a battered hat, and torn shoes. He sang and danced to his own song, “Come listen all you gals and boys, I’m going to sing a little song, my name is Jim Crow, wheel about and turn about and do just jis so, eb’ry time I wheel about I jump Jim Crow.”

    Minstrels would begin to decline after the Civil War. Competition from variety shows, musical comedies, and vaudeville appeared in the North with promoters like P. T. Barnum wooed away the audiences. Those that couldn’t compete moved to other regions of the country such as the South, Mid-west, and West. Those that stayed expanded their troupe and included more acts.

    Many minstrels added new songs such as slave spirituals and did away with the old slapstick routines. The stage was better decorated and the troupe dress more lavishly. Some even added females and did away with blackface except for the endmen.

    Social commentary was still prevalent but it took on a different tone. The main target of criticism was the Northern cities. They were corrupt, homes to unjust poverty, and a den of city slickers who lay in wait to prey upon new arrivals. They stressed family values and criticized women’s right, disrespectful children, low church attendance, and sexual promiscuity. Northern black characters took it a step further and criticized African American members of Congress as being pawns to the Radical Republicans.

    In the 1990s, the minstrel shows were nearing their end. Other avenues for actors and singers were opening. Moving pictures and soon the radio would fine them. By 1919, only three troupes dominated the scene. However, they would still continue to be portrayed in motion picture scenes in Hollywood. By the latter part of the 1960s, minstrel shows had cease to exist in America.

    The beginning of the decline of the minstrel in the 1860s also gave rise to the Black Minstrels. These were minstrels performed by an all-black troupe. It would lead to producing some of the earlier African American musical composers, singers, and actors.


    Old Dan Tucker is a minstrel song. It was made famous by the Ethiopian Serenaders in 1844. It is about a black man. However, he is also represented as an Irishman and very popular among Bluegrass singers and audiences. In fact, many think he is the Rev. Daniel Tucker of Elbert County Georgia, a Methodist minister and Revolutionary War veteran, farmer, and ferryman. In life he was beloved by the local slave population because he spent much of his time teaching and praying with them. This is why it was said that he was usually home too late to get his supper, as the lyrics in the song state.








    Last edited by the moor; 01-28-2021 at 02:08 AM.

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  17. #341
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    anybody who claims to be a black conservative republican is a champion for predominant white rule.


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